Three times from China’s ancient foreign trade to the modern One Belt And One Road.
The source of Chinese business and foreign trade has annihilation in the ancient history and it is difficult to confirm, but we can still from the traditional classics, legends and identify many traces in everyday language. The shang dynasty is famous for its good business, so that the latter will be known as “businessmen” in the future. King mu’s trip to the steppes of kyrgyzstan and opening the way to the outside world for the people of China. Even the legend of the mountains and the sea, which was written in the era of the great yu, is actually the actual record of the ancient people’s expeditions. With the help of the businessmen, when zhang qian through untold hardships, finally arrived at building (now Afghanistan), surprised to found in the local market in shudu cloth and qionglai bamboo rod, and the Chinese goods is from body poison resold (India). Relying on the unique pattern of long-term “unification” and “effect” of the great powers, economic and social development with people’s diligent intelligence, from the warring states period to the late Ming dynasty, China has been the world’s most developed countries, manufacturing for the development of China’s foreign trade has laid a solid foundation, also makes China always occupies the advantage in international trade of active status. During this period, China has made three leaps in its foreign trade, each of which has significantly deepened the impact of foreign trade on China’s social and economic life.
One, the han dynasty: the first open sea silk road
First leap began in the era of emperor of China’s foreign trade, it is a whole society confidence up and promising era, that is to lay the basic pattern of the unification of China, it is established the basic order of condensing the Chinese civilization of two thousand years of age of ideology, and only in this way the great era can make zhangqian, Tang Meng so intrepid explorers group, they respectively from two directions of northwest, southwest and shu body poison has opened up the silk road international trade two land, wei ch ‘ing, huo qubing, Chen Shang star with its renowned martial arts ensures the two international trade unimpeded, general fubo road baird, general ship TaoPing nan yue Yang, and opened the ports of the maritime silk route. After China’s foreign trade is but a few brave businessman single-handedly individual exploration, have since become protected by a strong central government and the support of national enterprise; China’s direct trade with India and the western region has been growing rapidly since China’s trade with India and the west had to be transferred several times to reach the final consumer.
Through the silk road, shu body poison and maritime silk road, we enter the grapes, clover, cucumber, carrot, blood horse and Buddhism, magic, and continuous output fine silk, porcelain and other manufactured goods, for as far as daqin (roma) countries consumers dazzling; Also makes the encyclopedic Roman empire famous scholar Pliny (Gaius Plinius Secundus, 23-79 AD) anxiety, he blamed its economic crisis on trade with China, think Roman imports of Chinese manufactured goods such as silk gap is too big, gold sustained outflow caused the domestic economic crisis. In the tang dynasty, the silk road trade of the northwest silk road was the test of the turmoil of The Three Kingdoms and the southern and northern dynasties. “Nine days ChangHe palace, the nations clothes a turban” — wang wei after depicting the scene in one thousand, still make the generation after generation of Chinese children with longing, also inspired generation after generation of lofty ideals and in nations when weighing up the pursuit of han and tang dynasties.
The battle of han-hungary and the western domain of zhang
Two, two song: rely on sea road commodity, money cover the world
“The yanyanqiao bridge, the curtain of the wind curtain, the number of 100,000 people.” (always: “looking at the sea tide, southeast centers”), created the myth of material wealth as a two song time  is undoubtedly the most prosperous world holds a prosperous country, the northern song dynasty is the first in the history of mankind’s $country, residents in the tang dynasty heyday there are more than 10 cities more than 100000 units, two song period has increased to 40, BianJingHe linan after chang ‘an, luoyang and nanjing to become the world’s fourth and fifth population more than millions of city. , and “the city column of mission, surplus Luo Qi” (always: “looking at the sea tide, southeast centers”), on agriculture as the main body of the traditional economic structure qualitative change in two song time, unprecedented increasing monetization of the national economy, the government revenue from industrial and commercial tax, 70% is already pretty close to the modern industrial and commercial society in many ways, “” and common people also can wear silk shoes, that modern foreign scholars lament, the medieval western European aristocracy real life level of song dynasty KaiFengFu soldiers gatekeepers.
On the basis of this, China’s foreign trade has made a second leap in the direction of trade routes to the sea and trade and commodity structure to consumer goods. Due to domestic unprecedented economic developed and the silk road by xixia partition, began in the han sea trade in two song period, great progress has been made and soon showed relative to overland trade advantage. In the era of overland trade, the Chinese foreign trade goods structure is not limited to the luxury of luxury goods. During the period of the two song dynasties, there was a growing presence of consumer goods. Song dynasty set up the first in the history of Chinese customs, established by the human history the biggest sailing and merchant fleet, the fleet from Korea and Japan in east Asia to the western India, Arab, East Africa, Chinese businessmen and sailors coast everywhere all have left their footprints. Foreign trade ever developed for the first time to have the importance of fiscal, cramped southeast half of the southern song dynasty imperial court more intense demand for foreign trade income, meidefang Zhao Gou imperiality, also relish in the trade of the thickest, if freedom of appropriate, the move millions, shall be taken from the people.”  at the end of the southern song dynasty shaoxing (1162), guangzhou, quanzhou, only three zhejiang than taxing tariff revenue is 200 wealth, according to the southern song dynasty imports tariff rate 7% ~ 10%, only the above three trade company tax goods imported in the 20 million ~ 20 million is combined with other port trade, when the southern song dynasty import and export trade volume per capita when more than one injection.
With large-scale foreign trade growth, well-made, distinguished credit from the enormous outflow of song dynasty copper, in addition to the khitans, xixia, Dali, tubo minority regime, such as Japan, tac toe (Vietnam), nanyang also a large number of input and use the money, the song dynasty from as far away as India, Africa, all the money, the song dynasty of Zanzibar, somalia, Africa as early as the 19th century unearthed a song, the song dynasty money became the east Asia common currency in the world, Japan and other countries and even the overall phenomenon of currency substitution, namely the government cast since money cannot win trust their own people and complete failure, to simply stop cast money depend entirely on the input Chinese money on its own. From the fifth generation of the five dynasties to the fifth year (958) to the late Ming dynasty (1587), Japan had to stop casting its own copper money for as long as 629 years. In order to guarantee the domestic copper money supply, the cotoe and other countries also stipulate that the Chinese copper money in foreign trade is not allowed to be used for external payment.  it was not until 1914 that the Japanese archaeological magazine article discussed north Korea currency situation at that time, still says north Korea circulation when China tang, down south, the northern song dynasty, the southern song dynasty, gold, the coin of Ming and qing dynasties, and kofi annan, Japan and Korea money money money, and the most money in northern song dynasty; Some parts of Indonesia are still using ancient Chinese fangkong money during world war ii.
Figure 2 shows the river map
The Ming dynasty: the trade surplus eliminated the money shortage.
When military congenital deficiency of zhao song dynasty after the final destruction in the blood, when the magnificent civilization of song dynasty flower twice after the fall in the cold wind from ShuoMo, bloodthirsty Beowulf that receives the song dynasty Marine technology is more interested in the application of these technologies scotched expansion rather than trade exchanges of peace. Until the Ming emperor to rebuild China’s national economy, the Ming emperor zhu di was determined after the restoration of China’s civilization image abroad, China’s foreign trade is back on normal development track. MingWu ZongZhengDe twelve years (in 1517) Portugal king Manuel I send him tomei, Pires (Tom Pires) arrived in guangzhou, European traders sailing east and one after another, then the direct trade to Europe, America and China from rapid expansion, Lisbon – the cape of good hope – Goa (Goa), malacca, macau, month in fujian port (now Long Haihai chengcheng)/xiamen / / macau – guangzhou – Manila Acapulco, Mexico (Acapulco), macau – Nagasaki were set, such as trade channel ushered in China’s foreign trade it for the third time in the history of the leap, not only has a huge role in promoting, on domestic production and trade surplus, silver internal flow caused a revolution in China’s fiscal and monetary system.
Until the Ming, the Chinese and foreign trade is still in the majority with luxury goods, since the southern song dynasty, China’s large purchases of overseas gems, spices, herbs, long-term trade deficit, gold, silver, copper, a large number of outflow. After the buzite east, the Chinese consumer goods won a vast new market, foreign trade commodity composition of qualitative change, with hundreds of years developed technology and low price, Chinese goods in Europe, America and Japan song all the way around the commodity competition, silk, silk fabric, velvet, silk damask, silk, cotton, hemp, jewelry, handicrafts, iron and steel, tin lead products, saltpeter, powder, food and poultry, livestock and other kinds of goods are a large number of output, especially the international competitiveness of textiles shows incomparable. From the English channel to the east African coast, from the Chesapeake Bay (Chesapeake Bay) to Acapulco, Mexico (Acapulco), unearthed relics and the Chinese porcelain in the underwater, textiles, silently telling people about the glory of China’s manufacturing and foreign trade of that age. China’s export growth of unprecedented reverse China’s international balance of payments, silver flowing into China from America, Japan, China eliminated the monetary metal is scarce for hundreds of years since the northern song dynasty “money shortage”, silver became popular in the whole society standard currency, for nine years wanli (1581), zhang juzheng in the national implementation of “one lash method”, establish overall monetary financial system laid a solid material foundation.
Zhang juzheng, the chief and co-director of the daoming, is the first of its kind
When the late Ming dynasty China commodity production, market exchange and normal development of social life are all upside down after different interrupt the Ming and qing dynasties, when all the big cities in China have been except Beijing manchu troops drowned in a pool of blood, in order to maintain the cabal of eight banners tribal rule, the qing rulers every kill all the han people’s pioneering spirit, innovation hostile to any change factor in Chinese society. In the manchu rulers, industry, science and technology of industry and commerce, foreign trade, overseas immigrants all belong to the dangerous factors and shall repeat limit, the production and technology of China, navigation technology in many key aspects of backsliding. Scientists sung ying-hsing in Ming dynasty by the characterized by open content was king of France after spread to Europe as a treasure, significantly promoted the development of the Japanese, European manufacturing technology, but in mainland China by was lost more than two hundred years, it was not until the late qing dynasty from Japan to input. In order to extinguish KangQing strength, shanhaiguan manchu rulers implemented cruel hai jin, from liaodong to guangdong, with a butcher’s knife along the long coastline created 30 miles wide areas; Kangxi years once open order and set up four trading ports, to qianlong twenty-four years (1759) is a contraction in guangzhou, its function is limited to provide to the nomenklatura western luxury and outside of the normal tax “serve”, has played an important role for China to open up overseas markets of the overseas Chinese have also been emperor qianlong contemptuously called “dumped” people, letting the Dutch and Spanish colonists to slaughter. In ZanGeSheng “high”, China’s manufacturing industry lost the last two thousand years of the world leading position, foreign trade lost the foundation of sustainable development, and stand on the top global economic system of former China descended into the third world, until with opium, the British invaders guns the shelling open door, China’s foreign trade under the condition of extreme humiliation, extreme inequality tears from passively to the “development” road pavement, also started the long, hard to save the Chinese nation and “catch up” process.
“One Belt And One Road” : reduce friction with Chinese culture
After a hundred years of bloody struggle, China has regained its independence. After the construction of more than 60 years of struggle, today’s China is already the world’s first manufacturing power, the only industry with the UN classification all industrial countries, the first exporter. In 1948, China in the global trade in goods export market share of only 0.9%, to 14.2% in 2015,  the share is close to basically, in the early 1950 s the United States after world war ii reached the peak, that is, the United States in its strength at the peak of s can possess the highest share of the peace. Theory of economy, America’s GDP in 1980 (present price) is in the same year, China’s current rate 9.4 times GDP, real GDP accounted for 21.90% of global real GDP, is also in the same year, China’s share (2.34%) of 9.4 times; By 2016, America’s GDP (present price) was only 63% higher than China’s current GDP in that year, real GDP accounted for 15.59% of global total share fell to nearly a third lower than in 1980, is the size of the same year by China account for 17.86% of the share (17.86%).  in global economic growth, China’s economic role has “stabilizer” of east Asia economy in the 1980 s to become a “stabilizer” of the world economy and the “engine”, China’s economic growth an annual contribution to world economic growth from 14.2% of the “15” and “11th five-year plan” period, rose to 30.5% of the “twelfth five-year” period, to 41.3% in 2016, the same index was 16.3% in the same year the United States, Japan’s 1.4%.  in the global economic and political system, China has been steadily back two thousand position different before Ming and qing dynasties, modern “area” planning is put forward in this background, the goal is to uphold the principle of equality and mutual benefit fully explore China and trading partners in their respective advantages, do big “cake” global economic and trade growth, Shared prosperity.
The first thing to do to succeed in the One Belt And One Road is to promote sustained, stable and healthy domestic industrial economy. We need to use the outward economic development to help the domestic market to unify and eliminate the domestic market segmentation, rather than the small opposite.
“The Iranian people always admire the Chinese people, because the Chinese people under the cultivation of the Confucian culture, had a good quality of diligence, thrift, can in a short span of 30 years to create China’s miracle”  – on May 18, 2016, Iranian vice President Sue’s method, the global times said in an interview. Yes, the cultural tradition has a major impact on the peace, stability and development of a society. Unavoidably hashing, “area” of the process and to maximize probability from the source to reduce friction, eliminate the friction has already occurred, cultural cooperation, mainly foreign spread of Chinese culture has an irreplaceable key role. “Area” is often attributed to “five”, the open policy unicom communication, road, trade, currency, hearts are interlinked, and cultural cooperation is key to lasting significance in the course of “popular” mutual content.
And, with direct cultural products exports and boost trade in goods exports, compared the function of cultural cooperation is more important is to gradually form a common default ideas and code of conduct, form more reasonable and positive way of thinking, so as to reduce the probability of friction from the source, dissolve the friction which has already happened. Even if you don’t consider it to create a good political and social environment of irreplaceable significance, just create a rational and sustainable economic policy and business environment, Chinese culture has a very positive role. With other large cultural systems
The Chinese culture is characterized by two points: the emphasis on self-reliance and self-regulation. It is this characteristic that in the history of Chinese dynasty when dealing with foreign relations is very concerned about the protection to the foreign life and property safety, reasonable planning its tax burden, constraints, their own merchant and dishonest behavior, create friendly business environment for foreign in China. In modern times, when China fetter from powers and start an independent implementation of “GanChaoXing” economic development strategy, it is this cultural traditions, makes the modern China is not to lag behind the whole reason is due to external forces of oppression, exploitation and pillage, and was more introspection, more to blame their own error backward, delays are dangerous. Thus, in the development of economy and trade, China’s ruling party and the government is more drives across the country, the whole nation self struggle, constant self-improvement, in order to eventually realize the goal of “catch-up”.
And in some traditional culture relatively lack, even serious lack of self-discipline consciousness of self-reflection country, society and policymakers tend to give their due to external forces behind the “sin”, and more inclined to adopt exclusive, restrictive measures to achieve a goal, lead to the bad business environment, the result is often exacerbated his achievements in economic and social development. This is true of both developed and developing countries. There are quite a few countries in China that are covered by the One Belt And One Road project. To solve many led to friction, after things happen through bilateral, regional and multilateral channels to seek to resolve is important, but not on heal disease, it is more important, I’m afraid or through cultural cooperation, osmosis let everybody believe in common positive ideas (although degree will vary), reduce the probability of friction from the source. Due to the primary products market changes, in the current during the 10 years or so, many emerging market trade partner of macro economy is in trouble, this change of environment itself can motivate them to introspection, motivate them to try to by cutting trade protectionism, the improvement of business environment to get rid of the economic difficulties; In such a period, cultural cooperation should be carried out to spread the idea of more reasonable and sustainable development.
We pursue peace and development, but as an objective and sober materialist, we must not take the rose-colored glasses to observe the real world. Open is necessary way to economic development, but the development of open economy will inevitably to the national economic security, social stability and political security brings a series of shocks, only to face the problem, is likely to solve the problem. Song dynasty greatly contributed to the booming foreign trade plagued two song “money shortage” problem in three hundred by the government, due to excessive appointment of aliens, lacking in the last years of suffering from the curse of PuShouGeng betrayal; In the end of the yuan dynasty, the root of the scourge of pu shougeng was further developed as a rebellion of the ten years in quanzhou. At one point, the development of foreign trade in the Ming dynasty led to the problem of “the Japanese invaders”. Qing dynasty brought frontier separatist the development of foreign trade, especially in the incoming pan-turkism in the trade of central Asia, Islam “double pan”, is still China’s national security menace. We must guard against all these problems